Highly evolvable malaria vectors: The genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes

Authors: 
Anopheles Genome Consortium Daniel E. Neafsey, Robert M. Waterhouse, Mohammad R. Abai, Sergey S. Aganezov, Max A. Alekseyev, James E. Allen, James Amon, Bruno Arcà, Peter Arensburger, Gleb Artemov, Lauren A. Assour, Hamidreza Basseri, Aaron Berlin, Bruce W. Birren, Stephanie A. Blandin, Andrew I. Brockman, Thomas R. Burkot, Austin Burt, Clara S. Chan, Cedric Chauve, Joanna C. Chiu, Mikkel Christensen, Carlo Costantini, Victoria L. M. Davidson, Elena Deligianni, Tania Dottorini, Vicky Dritsou, Stacey B. Gabriel, Wamdaogo M. Guelbeogo, Andrew B. Hall, Mira V. Han, Thaung Hlaing, Daniel S. T. Hughes, Adam M. Jenkins, Xiaofang Jiang, Irwin Jungreis, Evdoxia G. Kakani, Maryam Kamali, Petri Kemppainen, Ryan C. Kennedy, Ioannis K. Kirmitzoglou, Lizette L. Koekemoer, Njoroge Laban, Nicholas Langridge, Mara K. N. Lawniczak, Manolis Lirakis, Neil F. Lobo, Ernesto Lowy, Robert M. MacCallum, Chunhong Mao, Gareth Maslen, Charles Mbogo, Jenny McCarthy, Kristin Michel, Sara N. Mitchell, Wendy Moore, Katherine A. Murphy, Anastasia N. Naumenko, Tony Nolan, Eva M. Novoa, Samantha O’Loughlin, Chioma Oringanje, Mohammad A. Oshaghi, Nazzy Pakpour, Philippos A. Papathanos, Ashley N. Peery, Michael Povelones, Anil Prakash, David P. Price, Ashok Rajaraman, Lisa J. Reimer, David C. Rinker, Antonis Rokas, Tanya L. Russell, N’Fale Sagnon, Maria V. Sharakhova, Terrance Shea, Felipe A. Simão, Frederic Simard, Michel A. Slotman, Pradya Somboon, Vladimir Stegniy, Claudio J. Struchiner, Gregg W. C. Thomas, Marta Tojo, Pantelis Topalis, José M. C. Tubio, Maria F. Unger, John Vontas, Catherine Walton, Craig S. Wilding, Judith H. Willis, Yi-Chieh Wu, Guiyun Yan, Evgeny M. Zdobnov, Xiaofan Zhou, Flaminia Catteruccia, George K. Christophides, Frank H. Collins, Robert S. Cornman, Andrea Crisanti, Martin J. Donnelly, Scott J. Emrich, Michael C. Fontaine, William Gelbart, Matthew W. Hahn, Immo A. Hansen, Paul I. Howell, Fotis C. Kafatos, Manolis Kellis, Daniel Lawson, Christos Louis, Shirley Luckhart, Marc A. T. Muskavitch, José M. Ribeiro, Michael A. Riehle, Igor V. Sharakhov, Zhijian Tu, Laurence J. Zwiebel, Nora J. Besansky.
Journal: 
Science
Volume: 
347
Year: 
2015
Issue: 
2
Database Issue: 
Abstract: 
Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover, but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts.