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Anopheles coluzzii, formerly known as Anopheles gambiae M molecular form, was defined as a separate species in 2013 (Coetzee et al.). An. coluzzii belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species.

Anopheles stephensi is distributed in southern Asia, from the Indian subcontinent with a westward extension through Iran and Iraq into the Middle East and Arabian Peninsula to the east in Bangladesh, southern China, Myanmar and Thailand. Anopheles stephensi is a main vector of human malaria in India and the Persian Gulf.

Anopheles stephensi

The sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of the Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. It is distributed from Morocco to the Indian subcontinent and from southern Europe to central and eastern Africa.

Phlebotomus papatasi

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is distributed from Mexico to Argentina, including all the countries of Central America (except Belize) and most of tropical South America east of the Andes (except Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana). Across its distribution range is the major vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Studies suggest that L. longipalpis may be a single heterogeneous species or a species complex.

Lutzomyia longipalpis

Glossina, the tsetse flies, are vectors of African trypanosomes, which are of medical and veterinary importance. Glossina morsitans distribution is not accurately known in all countries. The subspecies G. morsitans submorsitans extends as a very large but broken belt throughout West Africa, into southern Sudan, northern Uganda.and Ethiopia. Very large belts of G. morsitans centralis occur in Zaire, Zambia, Angola, Botswana, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi; belts of G. morsitans morsitans occur in Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. The boundary separating the two subspecies G. morsitans centralis and G. morsitans morsitans corresponds roughly with the Atlantic/Indian Ocean watershed. Glossina morsitans morsitans is one of the major vectors of human African trypanosomiasis in eastern Africa.

Glossina morsitans

The kissing bug, Rhodnius prolixus is distributed in the Neotropic region (Mexico, Central and South America) and is one of the most efficient vectors of the causative agent of Chagas disease.

Rhodnius prolixus

The body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, transmits of typhus, trench fever and relapsing fever.

Pediculus humanus

The Culex pipiens complex is distributed worldwide and has two species formally recognized in the complex. One of these species is the tropical and subtropical C. quinquefasciatus (the southern house mosquito), vector of lymphatic filariasis and a number of arboviruses including St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus.

Culex quinquefasciatus

Lyme disease tick, the black-legged or deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is found in the Neartic region (Canada, USA and Mexico). In the USA Ixodes scapularis transmits Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and possibly Powassan Encephalitis.

Ixodes scapularis

Aedes aegypti exists in at least two forms (considered either subspecies or separate species according to different authors), namely A. aegypti formosus (the original wild type found in Africa) and A. aegypti aegypti (the worldwide urban form). The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti aegypti, has a worldwide distribution in the tropics and subtropics where it is the main vector of both dengue and yellow fever viruses. It can also transmit chikungunya and Zika viruses.

Aedes aegypti


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