Arthropoda

Taxonomic level: Phylum
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Aedes aegypti exists in at least two forms (considered either subspecies or separate species according to different authors), namely A. aegypti formosus (the original wild type found in Africa) and A. aegypti aegypti (the worldwide urban form). The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti aegypti, has a worldwide distribution in the tropics and subtropics where it is the main vector of both dengue and yellow fever viruses. It can also transmit chikungunya and Zika viruses.

Aedes aegypti

Anopheles coluzzii, formerly known as Anopheles gambiae M molecular form, was defined as a separate species in 2013 (Coetzee et al.). An. coluzzii belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species.

Anopheles gambiae senso stricto is the primary mosquito vector responsible for the transmission of malaria in most of sub-Saharan Africa. It is a member of a species complex that includes at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species in the Series Pyretophorus in the Anopheles subgenus Cellia. Anopheles gambiae feeds preferentially on humans and is one of the most efficient malaria vectors known.

Anopheles gambiae

Anopheles stephensi is distributed in southern Asia, from the Indian subcontinent with a westward extension through Iran and Iraq into the Middle East and Arabian Peninsula to the east in Bangladesh, southern China, Myanmar and Thailand. Anopheles stephensi is a main vector of human malaria in India and the Persian Gulf.

Anopheles stephensi

The Culex pipiens complex is distributed worldwide and has two species formally recognized in the complex. One of these species is the tropical and subtropical C. quinquefasciatus (the southern house mosquito), vector of lymphatic filariasis and a number of arboviruses including St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus.

Culex quinquefasciatus

Glossina, the tsetse flies, are vectors of African trypanosomes, which are of medical and veterinary importance. Glossina morsitans distribution is not accurately known in all countries. The subspecies G. morsitans submorsitans extends as a very large but broken belt throughout West Africa, into southern Sudan, northern Uganda.and Ethiopia. Very large belts of G. morsitans centralis occur in Zaire, Zambia, Angola, Botswana, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi; belts of G. morsitans morsitans occur in Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. The boundary separating the two subspecies G. morsitans centralis and G. morsitans morsitans corresponds roughly with the Atlantic/Indian Ocean watershed. Glossina morsitans morsitans is one of the major vectors of human African trypanosomiasis in eastern Africa.

Glossina morsitans

Lyme disease tick, the black-legged or deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is found in the Neartic region (Canada, USA and Mexico). In the USA Ixodes scapularis transmits Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and possibly Powassan Encephalitis.

Ixodes scapularis

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is distributed from Mexico to Argentina, including all the countries of Central America (except Belize) and most of tropical South America east of the Andes (except Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana). Across its distribution range is the major vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Studies suggest that L. longipalpis may be a single heterogeneous species or a species complex.

Lutzomyia longipalpis

The body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, transmits of typhus, trench fever and relapsing fever.

Pediculus humanus

The sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of the Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. It is distributed from Morocco to the Indian subcontinent and from southern Europe to central and eastern Africa.

Phlebotomus papatasi

The kissing bug, Rhodnius prolixus is distributed in the Neotropic region (Mexico, Central and South America) and is one of the most efficient vectors of the causative agent of Chagas disease.

Rhodnius prolixus

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is native to Asia but over the past century it has become established in almost 30 countries in the old and new world. It has the ability to act as a vector for many viruses agents including those responsible for Dengue fever, La Crosse encephalitis and West Nile virus.

Aedes albopictus

Anopheles albimanus it is one of the main vectors of malaria in southern México, Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean. On the Atlantic coast is found from Texas to Venezuela, on most of the Caribbean islands and on the Pacific coast, from Mexico to northern Peru.

Anopheles albimanus

Anopheles aquasalis is a major malaria vector in coastal areas of South and Central America where it breeds preferentially in brackish water.

Anopheles arabiensis belongs to the A. gambiae species complex, and is one of the most important vectors of malaria in in sub-Saharan Africa and surrounding islands.

Anopheles arabiensis

Anopheles atroparvus belongs to the A. maculipennis species complex. Anopheles atroparvus is distributed in northern and western Europe, Spain, Portugal and northern Italy and was one of the main malaria vectors in Europe.

Anopheles atroparvus

Anopheles christyi is not a malaria vector but is a species closely related to the Anopheles gambiae complex.

Anopheles culicifacies is a complex of five species found in Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Iran and Pakistan, and Anopheles culicifacies A is a malaria vector found in these last three countries.

Anopheles darlingi is one of the most important vectors of malaria in the Neotropics (Mexico, Central and South America), with populations from southern Mexico to Argentina.

The Anopheles sundaicus complex includes Anopheles epiroticus (formerly A. sundaicus A), which is a malaria vector located in Cambodia, peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak, Thailand and Vietnam.

Anopheles farauti is a complex of seven species distributed in the Moluccas (Indonesia) and extend eastward through Papua New Guinea (the Admiralty Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago), the Solomon Islands, the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) and Australia. Anopheles farauti sensu stricto (formerly A. farauti 1) is distributed in Papua New Guinea and Australia where it is and it was a malaria vector, respectively.

Anopheles farauti

Anopheles freeborni, the Western malaria mosquito, is found in western Canada and in the United States. This species is the principal malaria vector in the arid and semiarid western U.S. (Carpenter and LaCasse 1955).

Anopheles freeborni

Anopheles funestus has a wide geographic distribution, extending throughout Africa where is one of the most important vectors of malaria.

Anopheles funestus

Anopheles koliensis belongs to the Anopheles punctulatus species complex and is distributed throughout SW Pacific region namely Indonesia, Papua Island, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. An. koliensis is a primary vector of malaria and periodic filiariasis vector.

Anopheles maculatus complex includes important malaria vectors distributed from the Indian subcontinent through Southeast Asia to Taiwan. Anopheles maculatus B is a vector member of this complex.

Anopheles maculatus

Anopheles melas belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species, and it is a locally important vector in coastal western Africa.

Anopheles merus belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species, and it is a locally important vector in eastern and southern Africa where it is mainly found along the coast.

Anopheles merus

Anopheles nili is distributed throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and is an important vector in West Africa. An. nili has been reported with both feeding and resting habits it is anthropophilic species biting man readily indoors and outdoors and frequently resting indoors by day.

Anopheles punctulatus belongs to the Anopheles punctulatus species complex and is distributed throughout SW Pacific region including Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea (Island) - Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. An. punctulatus is a primary vector of malaria and periodic filiariasis vector.

Anopheles quadriannulatus A belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species, it is found in southern Africa and is not considered to be a malaria vector.

Anopheles quadriannulatus A

Anopheles quadrimaculatus belongs to the Maculipennis group and Quadrimaculatus subgroup, often mis-reported as a complex. Its distribution includes the eastern half of the United States, south eastern Canada and northeastern Mexico. A. quadrimaculatus was a capable malaria vector in the United states where malaria occurred.

Anopheles quadrimaculatus

Anopheles sinensis is considered an important vector of P.vivax in China and Korea. It is common throughout South East Asia from Pakistan to Japan and as far south as Thailand and Indonesia.

Anopheles sinensis

Cimex lectularius, the common bedbug, is a parasitic insect feeding preferentially on human blood. Cimex is cosmopolitan, found throughout the world in association with human populations.

Cimex lectularius

The American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis, is a species of tick that is known to carry bacteria responsible for several diseases in humans, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia (Francisella tularensis).

Dermacentor variabilis

Occurs only in the east coast countries of Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and northeastern parts of South Africa. It has also been recorded from Zimbabwe. Vector of Animal African Trypanosomiasis.

This species is widely scattered throughout eastern parts of Africa, from Ethiopia and Somalia in the north, to Mozambique and South Africa in the south. There is a large belt west of Lake Tanganyika, in Zaire. Ancestral vector of Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT).

Occupies a very large inland block of Africa centred on Zaire, but covering some of the land in all of the countries surrounding Zaire, as well as Gabon, Cameroon and the southern part of Chad. Vector of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa.

Extends along the Kenya and Somalia coastal regions and is abundant in Somalia along certain river valleys. It is also present in Ethiopia, Sudan, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Zaire and Uganda. Major vector of Trypanosoma brucei brucei, minor vector of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

Lives in the more humid areas of West Africa, from Senegal to Cameroon, then south along the coast to Angola. In West Africa it penetrates further to the north in Mali and Senegal, than it does in Nigeria. In the part of its distribution from Cameroon to Angola, it has a long common boundary with G. fuscipes, with which there is little overlap. Vector of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in West Africa.

Ixodes ricinus, the castor bean tick, is a chiefly European species of hard-bodied tick that can transmit both bacterial and viral pathogens such as the causative agents of Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.

There are very few known human diseases that involve pathogens transmitted by mites; the most important is tsutsugamushi disease, or scrub typhus, caused by the bacterium (Orientia tsutsugamushi) that is transmitted by several members of the genus Leptotrombidium (Family Trombiculidae) in south eastern Asia, Australia and the pacific islands (Mullen and Durden, 2002).

Common house fly, a comparator species for the tsetse project.

Musca domestica

Ornithodoros turicata is a soft tick vector of Borrelia turicatae, which causes relapsing fever.

Ornithodoros turicata

Rhipicephalus microplus (formerly Boophilus microplus) is an economically important tick that parasitises a variety of livestock species; it is known as the cattle tick or southern cattle tick.

Cosmopolitan mite species that causes scabies.

Simulium damnosum is a species complex of 55 named cytoforms (cytospecies and cytotypes), the largest known species complex of any vector, insect or animal. Simulium damnosum complex is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Simulium damnosum sensu stricto is an onchocerciasis vector distributed in Uganda, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Togo.

Simulium exiguum species complex is present in Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. Species of this complex were the main onchocerciasis vectors in Ecuador and Colombia.

Simulium exiguum

Simulium ochraceum species complex is found in Mexico, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Jamaica, Montserrat, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Venezuela, Virgin Islands and possibly Dominica. Species of this complex are the main vectors of onchocerciasis in Central America, especially Guatemala and Mexico.

Simulium ochraeceum

Simulium damnosum is a species complex of 55 named cytoforms (cytospecies and cytotypes), the largest known species complex of any vector, insect or animal. Simulium damnosum complex is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Simulium sanctipauli belongs to this complex, is an onchocerciasis vector and is distributed in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo.

Simulium damnosum is a species complex of 55 named cytoforms (cytospecies and cytotypes), the largest known species complex of any vector, insect or animal. Simulium damnosum complex is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Simulium sirbanum belongs to this complex, is an onchocerciasis vector and is distributed in Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Nigeria, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo and Uganda.

Simulium damnosum is a species complex of 55 named cytoforms (cytospecies and cytotypes), the largest known species complex of any vector, insect or animal. Simulium damnosum complex is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Simulium squamosum belongs to this complex, is an onchocerciasis vector and is distributed in Cameroon, Benin, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo.

Simulium damnosum is a species complex of 55 named cytoforms (cytospecies and cytotypes), the largest known species complex of any vector, insect or animal. Simulium damnosum complex is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Simulium thyolense belongs to this complex, is an onchocerciasis vector and is distributed in Malawi and Tanzania.

Simulium vittatum sensu stricto (formerly S. vittatum IS-7), it's one of two (or possibly three) members of a sibling species complex. Simulium vittatum sensu stricto is distributed in Greenland, Canada, United Sates, Mexico, Iceland and Faroe Islands (Denmark) and it is the vector of vesicular stomatitis virus that affects cattle, horses and swine but not of human onchocerciasis.

Simulium vittatum

Simulium woodi is found in Malawi, Tanzania and possibly Zambia. It was the main vector in Tanzania.

Simulium damnosum is a species complex of 55 named cytoforms (cytospecies and cytotypes), the largest known species complex of any vector, insect or animal. Simulium damnosum complex is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Simulium yahense belongs to this complex, is an onchocerciasis vector and is distributed in Liberia, Benin, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo.

Stable fly, a comparator species for the tsetse project.

Stomoxys calcitrans

Triatoma dimidiata is a blood-sucking insect whose range extends from northern South Amer

Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in South America.

Species of triatomine blood-sucking insect.

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