Diptera

Taxonomic level: Order
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Anopheles koliensis

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Anopheles koliensis belongs to the Anopheles punctulatus species complex and is distributed throughout SW Pacific region namely Indonesia, Papua Island, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. An. koliensis is a primary vector of malaria and periodic filiariasis vector. Larvae are found in temporary pools in grassland areas in full sunlight. Females are night biters and strongly anthropophilic (Belkin 1962).

Short Name: 
akoliensis
Organism taxonomy: 

Anopheles maculatus

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Anopheles maculatus
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Range

Anopheles maculatus complex includes important malaria vectors distributed from the Indian subcontinent through Southeast Asia to Taiwan. Anopheles maculatus B is a vector member of this complex.

Habitats

Members of the Maculatus Group are typically found in or near hilly and mountainous areas. Larvae have been collected in a diverse number of permanent or semi-permanent bodies of clean water that are often exposed to direct sunlight, including ponds, lakes, swamps, ditches, wells, different types of pools (grassy, sandy, ground, flood, stream), margins along small, slow-flowing streams, gravel pits along stream margins, seepages, springs, rice fields, foot and wheel prints, and occasionally tree holes and bamboo stumps. More specific studies have shown that each species has a preferred habitat. For instance, larvae of An. willmori are found only along stream margins at altitudes between 990m and 1450m in northern Thailand, whereas larvae of An. pseudowillmori have been collected primarily in rice fields, stream margins, ponds, pits and wells. An. maculatus prefers to use pools of water formed on the banks of rivers and waterfalls most commonly shallow pools 5-15cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and emergent plants. This species also requires, or strongly prefers, open to partially shaded habitats. Habitats are commonly located at 100m to 400m from the nearest human settlement.

Resting and feeding preferences

In general, females are more strongly attracted to cattle than humans, but freely bite people both inside and outside houses. An. maculatus and An. sawadwongporni appear to be the least zoophilic of the species and exhibit early biting activity, peaking between 18:00 and 21:00. An. dispar and An. greeni exhibit strong exophagic and zoophilic behaviours. The combination of the early evening biting activity of these malaria vectors (particularly An. maculatus and An. sawadwongporni) and their zoophilic and exophilic tendencies indicates that they will be less affected by vector control methods based on indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. However, a strategy of creating a barrier using insecticide on vegetation near cattle or other animal hosts may provide significant in the control of these vectors.

Vectorial capacity

Members of the Maculatus Group are variously involved in malaria transmission. However, the vector role of each species is not precisely known and their vectorial capacity appears to vary depending on geographical location. An. maculatus has the widest distribution of all species of the group but it is only an important vector of human malarial parasites in hilly areas of eastern India, southern Thailand, peninsular Malaysia and south-central Java. Anopheles sawadwongporni is considered an important vector in Thailand and An. pseudowillmori is a secondary vector in northwestern Thailand along the Myanmar border. Anopheles. willmori is one of the primary vectors in Nepal, but it is seldom collected in Thailand and does not appear to be involved in malaria transmission there. Anopheles dispar and An. greeni are regarded as secondary vectors in the Philippines. Anopheles notanandai, An. dravidicus and An. rampae are not known to be involved in malaria transmission.

This text was modified from Sinka ME et al. (2011) The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Asia-Pacific: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis Parasites & Vectors 4:89.

Short Name: 
amaculatus
Organism taxonomy: 

Anopheles melas

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Range

Anopheles melas belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species, and it is a locally important vector in coastal western Africa.

Habitats

An. melas is commonly associated with brackish water and can utilise saline environments, yet does not appear to require brackish water for larval stage development. It is generally restricted to coastal areas but has been found up to 150km inland along the Gambia River, where salt water can intrude great distances (up to 180km) upriver. Unlike other African dominant vector species, the density fluctuations of An. melas are closely associated with tidal changes rather than seasons, and a peak in adult numbers 11 days after spring tides has been recorded. The larvae of this species are associated with salt marsh grass (Paspalum species) and mangroves, but only those of the genus Avicenna, which include white, grey and black mangrove, and not from the genus Rhizophora (’true’ or red mangrove spp.). These positive and negative associations are thought to be strongly influenced by the predominant soil type associated with the different tree genera, The poorly drained, peaty-like soil common to Avicenna forests appears preferable to An. melas compared to the sandy, gravelly or smooth, fibrous peat soils common to the Rhizophora stands. An. melas oviposits on damp ground at low tide rather than in open water, and the eggs are able to survive some degree of desiccation until the tides rise again. This behaviour may guarantee the larvae will have sufficient time to complete their larval development and pupate in the less saline, relatively permanent waters of the new tide before it begins to recede and the water either becomes too salty, or dries out completely.

Resting and feeding preferences

Adult biting behaviour appears to be opportunistic. An. melas has been described as both highly anthropophilic and a zoophilic species and has been shown to be fairly indiscriminate in host choice. An. melas generally rests outdoors after feeding, although there has been limited success in locating and collecting from such natural outdoor resting sites. Those females that do bite and rest indoors are more likely to have fed on humans whereas those biting or resting outdoors (or in animal sheds) are more likely to have bitten animals. Blood feeding activity appears to be fairly continuous throughout the night.

Vectorial capacity

An. melas is generally considered to be a vector of lesser importance where it occurs in in the same places as An. gambiae or An. arabiensis. However, in coastal areas, where it can occur in very high densities, it is still a problematic vector of malaria.

This text was modified from Sinka ME et al. (2010) The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis Parasites & Vectors 3:117.

Short Name: 
amelas
Organism taxonomy: 

Anopheles merus

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Anopheles merus
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Range

Anopheles merus belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species, and it is a locally important vector in eastern and southern Africa where it is mainly found along the coast.

Habitats

An. merus is found in high numbers in shallow brackish pools and marsh or swamp areas along the coast. As a consequence, this species does not exhibit density changes in response to tidal fluctuations nor does it appear to tolerate very high levels of salinity. It is rarely found in the mangrove forests on the east coast of Africa, however this may be due to the composition of the trees and soil type under of the stands of mangrove in this zone rather than inherent behavioural patterns. An. merus is known to occur inland, using salt pans and saline pools as larval habitats.

Resting and feeding preferences

An. merus is generally opportunistic in host selection, depending on host availability and females have a tendency to bite and rest outdoors. The biting times of An. merus on the Kenyan coast have been reported as gradually rising from early evening (18:00) peaking between midnight and 01:00 and then declining until 06:00, which reflects the accepted biting pattern for this species across its range.

Vectorial capacity

An. merus has previously been considered as only a minor or unimportant vector, however, it has been identified as playing an unexpectedly important role along the Tanzanian coast and more recently in Mozambique.

This text was modified from Sinka ME et al. (2010) The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis Parasites & Vectors 3:117.

Short Name: 
amerus
Organism taxonomy: 

Anopheles nili

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Anopheles nili is distributed throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and is an important vector in West Africa. An. nili has been reported with both feeding and resting habits it is anthropophilic species biting man readily indoors and outdoors and frequently resting indoors by day. It is a stream breeder, larvae being found in vegetation or in dense shade along the edges of streams and large rivers.

Short Name: 
anili
Organism taxonomy: 

Anopheles punctulatus

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Anopheles punctulatus belongs to the Anopheles punctulatus species complex and is distributed throughout SW Pacific region including Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea (Island) - Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. An. punctulatus is a primary vector of malaria and periodic filiariasis vector. Larvae are found in sunny road ruts and temporary pools. Females bite indoors during the early morning hours (Belkin 1962)

Short Name: 
apunctulatus
Organism taxonomy: 

Anopheles quadriannulatus

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Anopheles quadriannulatus A
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Anopheles quadriannulatus A belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species, it is found in southern Africa and is not considered to be a malaria vector.

Short Name: 
aquadriannulatusa
Organism taxonomy: 

Anopheles quadrimaculatus

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Anopheles quadrimaculatus
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Anopheles quadrimaculatus belongs to the Maculipennis group and Quadrimaculatus subgroup, often mis-reported as a complex. Its distribution includes the eastern half of the United States, south eastern Canada and northeastern Mexico. A. quadrimaculatus was a capable malaria vector in the United states where malaria occurred.

Short Name: 
aquadrimaculatus
Organism taxonomy: 

Anopheles sinensis

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Anopheles sinensis
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Range

Anopheles sinensis is considered an important vector of P.vivax in China and Korea. It is common throughout South East Asia from Pakistan to Japan and as far south as Thailand and Indonesia.

Habitats

The immature stages of An. sinensis are primarily found in lowland, shallow, fresh-water habitats with emergent and/or floating vegetation in open agriculture lands (mainly rice fields). They also utilise stream margins, irrigation ditches, ponds, marshes, swamps, bogs, pits, stump ground holes, grassy pools, flood pools, stream pools, rock pools, seepage-springs and wheel tracks. Shading requirements vary, but this species is more often associated with exposed and sunlit aquatic environments.

Resting and feeding preferences

Female An. sinensis feed throughout the night, with peak activity apparently occurring at different hours depending on locality. Under normal circumstances, females are predominantly zoophilic and exophilic, infrequently biting humans in the presence of their preferred hosts (buffalo and cattle), and are rarely found inside human habitations. In northern temperate climates, An. sinensis females hibernate in sheltered places from the end of October.

Vectorial capacity

There is evidence that An. sinensis is refractory to Plasmodium falciparum, but it is still considered an important vector of P. vivax malaria in both China and Korea. It is the most common anopheline species in Japan, where it is regarded as an important historical vector of malaria. An. sinensis is considered to be a minor malaria vector in Indonesia (Sumatra only) and has little or no involvement in malaria transmission in Thailand due to its zoophilic and exophilic behaviour and its prevalence primarily in areas where there is little or no malaria. Along the border between North and South Korea, it has been reported that An. sinensis comprised 80% of the anopheline mosquitoes attacking humans during an outbreak of P. vivax malaria but studies suggest that An. sinensis is a less effective vector of malaria in Korea than An. lesteri. The zoophilic and exophilic behaviour of this species suggests its vectorial capacity may be high only in the presence of large population densities.

This text was modified from Sinka ME et al. (2011) The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Asia-Pacific: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis Parasites & Vectors 4:89.

Short Name: 
asinensis
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina austeni

Community contact: 
Serap Aksoy
Body: 

Occurs only in the east coast countries of Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and northeastern parts of South Africa. It has also been recorded from Zimbabwe. Vector of Animal African Trypanosomiasis.

Short Name: 
gausteni
Organism taxonomy: 

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