Glossina

Taxonomic level: Genus
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Glossina morsitans

Image: 
Glossina morsitans
Community contact: 
Serap Aksoy
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Male and female tsetse flies are the vectors of the trypanosomes that cause African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. It is conservatively estimated by the World Health Organization that there are currently between 300,000 and 500,000 cases of African sleeping sickness, with 60 million people at risk in 37 countries covering 40% of Africa. After a devastating epidemic in the early 20th century, when a million people died of sleeping sickness, the disease almost disappeared from Africa by the 1960s. However, we are now in the midst of another epidemic, with increasing numbers of new infections and mortality (55,000 deaths in 1993; 66,000 in 1999), and a disease burden of 2.05 million disability adjusted life years (DALY).

Glossina morsitans distribution is not accurately known in all countries. The subspecies G. morsitans submorsitans extends as a very large but broken belt throughout West Africa, into southern Sudan, northern Uganda.and Ethiopia. Very large belts of G. morsitans centralis occur in Zaire, Zambia, Angola, Botswana, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi; belts of G. morsitans morsitans occur in Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. The boundary separating the two subspecies G. morsitans centralis and G. morsitans morsitans corresponds roughly with the Atlantic/Indian Ocean watershed.

The project has been jointly funded by the Wellcome Trust, WHO/TDR, RIKEN, the University of Tokyo and NIH/NIAID.

Short Name: 
gmorsitans
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina austeni

Community contact: 
Serap Aksoy
Body: 

Occurs only in the east coast countries of Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and northeastern parts of South Africa. It has also been recorded from Zimbabwe. Vector of Animal African Trypanosomiasis.

Short Name: 
gausteni
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina brevipalpis

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This species is widely scattered throughout eastern parts of Africa, from Ethiopia and Somalia in the north, to Mozambique and South Africa in the south. There is a large belt west of Lake Tanganyika, in Zaire. Ancestral vector of Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT).

Short Name: 
gbrevipalpis
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina fuscipes

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Occupies a very large inland block of Africa centred on Zaire, but covering some of the land in all of the countries surrounding Zaire, as well as Gabon, Cameroon and the southern part of Chad. Vector of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa.

Short Name: 
gfuscipes
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina pallidipes

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Extends along the Kenya and Somalia coastal regions and is abundant in Somalia along certain river valleys. It is also present in Ethiopia, Sudan, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Zaire and Uganda. Major vector of Trypanosoma brucei brucei, minor vector of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

Short Name: 
gpallidipes
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina palpalis

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Lives in the more humid areas of West Africa, from Senegal to Cameroon, then south along the coast to Angola. In West Africa it penetrates further to the north in Mali and Senegal, than it does in Nigeria. In the part of its distribution from Cameroon to Angola, it has a long common boundary with G. fuscipes, with which there is little overlap. Vector of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in West Africa.

Short Name: 
gpalpalis
Organism taxonomy: 
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