Insecta

Taxonomic level: Class
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Anopheles sinensis

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Anopheles sinensis
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Range

Anopheles sinensis is considered an important vector of P.vivax in China and Korea. It is common throughout South East Asia from Pakistan to Japan and as far south as Thailand and Indonesia.

Habitats

The immature stages of An. sinensis are primarily found in lowland, shallow, fresh-water habitats with emergent and/or floating vegetation in open agriculture lands (mainly rice fields). They also utilise stream margins, irrigation ditches, ponds, marshes, swamps, bogs, pits, stump ground holes, grassy pools, flood pools, stream pools, rock pools, seepage-springs and wheel tracks. Shading requirements vary, but this species is more often associated with exposed and sunlit aquatic environments.

Resting and feeding preferences

Female An. sinensis feed throughout the night, with peak activity apparently occurring at different hours depending on locality. Under normal circumstances, females are predominantly zoophilic and exophilic, infrequently biting humans in the presence of their preferred hosts (buffalo and cattle), and are rarely found inside human habitations. In northern temperate climates, An. sinensis females hibernate in sheltered places from the end of October.

Vectorial capacity

There is evidence that An. sinensis is refractory to Plasmodium falciparum, but it is still considered an important vector of P. vivax malaria in both China and Korea. It is the most common anopheline species in Japan, where it is regarded as an important historical vector of malaria. An. sinensis is considered to be a minor malaria vector in Indonesia (Sumatra only) and has little or no involvement in malaria transmission in Thailand due to its zoophilic and exophilic behaviour and its prevalence primarily in areas where there is little or no malaria. Along the border between North and South Korea, it has been reported that An. sinensis comprised 80% of the anopheline mosquitoes attacking humans during an outbreak of P. vivax malaria but studies suggest that An. sinensis is a less effective vector of malaria in Korea than An. lesteri. The zoophilic and exophilic behaviour of this species suggests its vectorial capacity may be high only in the presence of large population densities.

This text was modified from Sinka ME et al. (2011) The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Asia-Pacific: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis Parasites & Vectors 4:89.

Short Name: 
asinensis
Organism taxonomy: 

Cimex lectularius

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Cimex lectularius
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Cimex lectularius, the common bedbug, is a parasitic insect feeding preferentially on human blood. Cimex is cosmopolitan, found throughout the world in association with human populations. Cimex is not thought to be a vector although recent studies have shown that it can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the pathogen for Chagas disease in mice.

Short Name: 
clectularius
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina austeni

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Serap Aksoy
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Occurs only in the east coast countries of Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and northeastern parts of South Africa. It has also been recorded from Zimbabwe. Vector of Animal African Trypanosomiasis.

Short Name: 
gausteni
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina brevipalpis

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This species is widely scattered throughout eastern parts of Africa, from Ethiopia and Somalia in the north, to Mozambique and South Africa in the south. There is a large belt west of Lake Tanganyika, in Zaire. Ancestral vector of Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT).

Short Name: 
gbrevipalpis
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina fuscipes

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Occupies a very large inland block of Africa centred on Zaire, but covering some of the land in all of the countries surrounding Zaire, as well as Gabon, Cameroon and the southern part of Chad. Vector of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa.

Short Name: 
gfuscipes
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina pallidipes

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Extends along the Kenya and Somalia coastal regions and is abundant in Somalia along certain river valleys. It is also present in Ethiopia, Sudan, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Zaire and Uganda. Major vector of Trypanosoma brucei brucei, minor vector of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

Short Name: 
gpallidipes
Organism taxonomy: 

Glossina palpalis

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Lives in the more humid areas of West Africa, from Senegal to Cameroon, then south along the coast to Angola. In West Africa it penetrates further to the north in Mali and Senegal, than it does in Nigeria. In the part of its distribution from Cameroon to Angola, it has a long common boundary with G. fuscipes, with which there is little overlap. Vector of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in West Africa.

Short Name: 
gpalpalis
Organism taxonomy: 

Musca domestica

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Musca domestica
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Common house fly, a comparator species for the tsetse project.

Short Name: 
mdomestica
Organism taxonomy: 

Simulium damnosum

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Simulium damnosum is a species complex of 55 named cytoforms (cytospecies and cytotypes), the largest known species complex of any vector, insect or animal. Simulium damnosum complex is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Simulium damnosum sensu stricto is an onchocerciasis vector distributed in Uganda, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Togo.

Short Name: 
sdamnosum
Organism taxonomy: 

Simulium exiguum

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Simulium exiguum
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Simulium exiguum species complex is present in Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. Species of this complex were the main onchocerciasis vectors in Ecuador and Colombia.

Short Name: 
sexiguum
Organism taxonomy: 

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