Anopheles

Taxonomic level: Genus

Anopheles coluzzii, formerly known as Anopheles gambiae M molecular form, was defined as a separate species in 2013 (Coetzee et al.). An. coluzzii belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species.

Anopheles gambiae senso stricto is the primary mosquito vector responsible for the transmission of malaria in most of sub-Saharan Africa. It is a member of a species complex that includes at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species in the Series Pyretophorus in the Anopheles subgenus Cellia. Anopheles gambiae feeds preferentially on humans and is one of the most efficient malaria vectors known.

Anopheles gambiae

Anopheles stephensi is distributed in southern Asia, from the Indian subcontinent with a westward extension through Iran and Iraq into the Middle East and Arabian Peninsula to the east in Bangladesh, southern China, Myanmar and Thailand. Anopheles stephensi is a main vector of human malaria in India and the Persian Gulf.

Anopheles stephensi

Anopheles albimanus it is one of the main vectors of malaria in southern México, Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean. On the Atlantic coast is found from Texas to Venezuela, on most of the Caribbean islands and on the Pacific coast, from Mexico to northern Peru.

Anopheles albimanus

Anopheles aquasalis is a major malaria vector in coastal areas of South and Central America where it breeds preferentially in brackish water.

Anopheles arabiensis belongs to the A. gambiae species complex, and is one of the most important vectors of malaria in in sub-Saharan Africa and surrounding islands.

Anopheles arabiensis

Anopheles atroparvus belongs to the A. maculipennis species complex. Anopheles atroparvus is distributed in northern and western Europe, Spain, Portugal and northern Italy and was one of the main malaria vectors in Europe.

Anopheles atroparvus

Anopheles christyi is not a malaria vector but is a species closely related to the Anopheles gambiae complex.

Anopheles culicifacies is a complex of five species found in Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Iran and Pakistan, and Anopheles culicifacies A is a malaria vector found in these last three countries.

Anopheles darlingi is one of the most important vectors of malaria in the Neotropics (Mexico, Central and South America), with populations from southern Mexico to Argentina.

The Anopheles sundaicus complex includes Anopheles epiroticus (formerly A. sundaicus A), which is a malaria vector located in Cambodia, peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak, Thailand and Vietnam.

Anopheles farauti is a complex of seven species distributed in the Moluccas (Indonesia) and extend eastward through Papua New Guinea (the Admiralty Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago), the Solomon Islands, the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) and Australia. Anopheles farauti sensu stricto (formerly A. farauti 1) is distributed in Papua New Guinea and Australia where it is and it was a malaria vector, respectively.

Anopheles farauti

Anopheles freeborni, the Western malaria mosquito, is found in western Canada and in the United States. This species is the principal malaria vector in the arid and semiarid western U.S. (Carpenter and LaCasse 1955).

Anopheles freeborni

Anopheles funestus has a wide geographic distribution, extending throughout Africa where is one of the most important vectors of malaria.

Anopheles funestus

Anopheles koliensis belongs to the Anopheles punctulatus species complex and is distributed throughout SW Pacific region namely Indonesia, Papua Island, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. An. koliensis is a primary vector of malaria and periodic filiariasis vector.

Anopheles maculatus complex includes important malaria vectors distributed from the Indian subcontinent through Southeast Asia to Taiwan. Anopheles maculatus B is a vector member of this complex.

Anopheles maculatus

Anopheles melas belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species, and it is a locally important vector in coastal western Africa.

Anopheles merus belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species, and it is a locally important vector in eastern and southern Africa where it is mainly found along the coast.

Anopheles merus

Anopheles nili is distributed throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and is an important vector in West Africa. An. nili has been reported with both feeding and resting habits it is anthropophilic species biting man readily indoors and outdoors and frequently resting indoors by day.

Anopheles punctulatus belongs to the Anopheles punctulatus species complex and is distributed throughout SW Pacific region including Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea (Island) - Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. An. punctulatus is a primary vector of malaria and periodic filiariasis vector.

Anopheles quadriannulatus A belongs to the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which consists of at least seven species, it is found in southern Africa and is not considered to be a malaria vector.

Anopheles quadriannulatus A

Anopheles quadrimaculatus belongs to the Maculipennis group and Quadrimaculatus subgroup, often mis-reported as a complex. Its distribution includes the eastern half of the United States, south eastern Canada and northeastern Mexico. A. quadrimaculatus was a capable malaria vector in the United states where malaria occurred.

Anopheles quadrimaculatus

Anopheles sinensis is considered an important vector of P.vivax in China and Korea. It is common throughout South East Asia from Pakistan to Japan and as far south as Thailand and Indonesia.

Anopheles sinensis
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